Классификация нешарнирных головоломок

Этот раздел включает в себя материалы, затрагивающие классификацию нешарнирных головоломок, предложенные коллекционерами. Идеальной классификации быть не может по определению, ведь существует бесчисленное множество головоломок попадающих одновременно в разные категории и с каждым днем их становиться все больше и больше.

Белов В.Н., Грабарчук С.А., Рыбинский В.Н.

      Группа A. ПРИКЛАДЫВАНИЕ

    1. СИЛУЭТ
      1. Систематический набор ---> Пентамино, Гексосеть, Капли дождя
      2. Систематическое разрезание ---> Игры Рихтера, Квадрат Сеи Шонаган
      3. Произвольный силуэт ---> Три кольца, Акула, Белая лошадь
    2. УПАКОВКА
      1. Поликубики ---> Кубики Сома, Двойной паркет
      2. Некубический набор ---> Пирамида Хеопса, Пирамида Минотавра
      3. Произвольное сечение ---> Кубы Уилера, Сечение пирамиды
    3. МОЗАИКА
      1. Двумерная мозаика ---> Цветовое домино, Квадраты Мак-Магона
      2. Трехмерная мозаика ---> Мэйблокс, 4 кубика, Куб Дэниса

      Группа B. ПРИСОЕДИНЕНИЕ

    4. УЗЕЛ
      1. Поликубический узел ---> Шаркунок, Пагода, Крест Макарова
      2. Некубический узел ---> Узлы Коффина, Узел из спичечных коробков
      3. Сюжетный узел ---> Модели, Конструкторы, Брелки
      4. Игрушки для Каннон ---> Спарта, Шкатулка
    5. ЗАЦЕПЫ
      1. Меледа ---> Морока, Комбинированная меледа
      2. Нетипичные зацепления ---> Якорь, 2 подковы, Браслет Петра I
      3. Маршрутные ---> Переставь кольцо
    6. ШНУРКОВЫЕ
      1. Разомкнутые ---> 2 браслета
      2. Замкнутые ---> Сердце, Узлы царя Гордия
      3. Игра в веревочку ---> Кошачья люлька, Макраме, Плетение

      Группа C. КОМБИНАЦИИ

    7. ЦЕПОЧКИ
      1. Складушки ---> Оригами, Чудо на ножках
      2. Флексагоны ---> Флексотрубка Стоуна, Кольцо тетраэдров
      3. Сложные цепочки ---> Змейка Рубика, Кубик-змейка
    8. МАНЕВРЫ
      1. Двумерные маневры ---> Игра в 15, Мамина головоломка
      2. Перевертыши ---> Перевертыши: Дремова, пирамидки
      3. Трехмерные маневры ---> Варикон, Минус-кубик
    9. РОТАЦИЯ
      1. Ротаскопы ---> Венгерские кольца
      2. Трехмерные ротаскопы ---> Полишар
      3. Сложная ротация ---> Куб Рубика, Молдавская пирамидка

      Группа D. СМЕСЬ

    10. СМЕКАЛКА
      1. Сюрприз ---> Напейся - не облейся, Фокусы
      2. Секрет ---> Черный ящик, Сезам, Замок
      3. Загонялки ---> Куб-лабиринт, Простые лабиринты
      4. Нечто странное ---> Иллюзии, Невозможные объекты
    11. ПАСЬЯНС
      1. Задачи на спичках ---> Рак, Рюмка и косточка, Корова
      2. Перекладки ---> Солитер, Хальма
      3. Маневры с условиями ---> Ханойская башня, Условные лабиринты
      4. Игровой пасьянс ---> Проблемы в шахматах, картах, домино
      5. Лингвистический пасьянс ---> Квадраты и цепочки слов, Ребусы
    12. МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЕ
      1. Геометрические ---> Разрезания, Построения, Софизмы
      2. Алгебраические ---> Кросс-суммы, Диофантовы проблемы
      3. Занимательные задачи ---> Переливание, Взвешивание, Компьютерные
      4. Математические игры ---> Ним, Калах, Крестики-нолики

Jerry Slocum

Dalgety-Hordern 1999

    Источник - CLASSES of MECHANICAL PUZZLES

    CLASSES of MECHANICAL PUZZLES

    DEXTERITY PUZZLES (DEX) - головоломки, требующие ловкости рук или других физических навыков в их решении

     

    .
    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    DEX-UNCA Uncased Dexterities Cup & Ball, "Le Pendu", "Theo der Turnier", Tomy's "Crazy Maze", Puzzles using Tops
    DEX-BALL Dexterity. Plain Balls into holes Pentangle "Roly-Poly" puzzles
    DEX-OBST Dexterity with sundry obstacles &/or objects Ramps - bridges - jumping beans - etc.
    DEX-LQOB Liquid objects Mercury manipulation
    DEX-INLQ Dexterity in Liquid Water-filled puzzles
    DEX-MIRR Indirect viewing by mirror Kohner's "Nervous Breakdown"
    DEX-MECH Mechanised Tomy's "Pocketeers"
    DEX-TOOL Using tools & magnetic tools Reiss "Magnetic Puzzle-Ups"
    DEX-RTFL Route following Dexterity Farmer's "Silver Bullet", Tomy's"Supermazes", Binary Arts "Back-Flip"
    DEX-HIDD Objects concealed from view Four Generations "Ball in Block", Engel's "Black Box"
    DEX-ELEC Electrical & Electronic Dexterities Nintendo's "Game & Watch" series.
    DEX-PINB Pinball related dexterities Bagatelle
    DEX-OTH Other Dexterities Pneumatic operation

    ROUTEFINDING PUZZLES (RTF) - головоломки, требующие нахождения определенного пути.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    RTF-CPLX Routefinding with Changing Path &/or Complex Traveller "Frying Pan"(changing), "Yankee"(complex), "Tandem Maze"(complex), "Bootlegger"(complex)
    RTF-STEP Routefinding Step Mazes Ring & Hole mazes, "Pike's Peak"
    RTF-UNIC Unicursal Routefinding Icosian Game, Konigsburg Bridges
    RTF-SHOR Shortest Route -
    RTF-ANY Route Mazes (any path) Most Hedge mazes, Mazes on surface of a cube, Ball in 4x4x4 cube of cubelets
    RTF-OTH Complex Route Mazes with special objectives "Worried Woodworm", Colour Mazes, Number totalling mazes, avoiding objects, visiting places en route

    TANGLEMENT PUZZLES (TNG) - головоломки требующие соединения-разъединения частей. Разъемные элементы могут быть гибкими, имеют значительную свободу передвижения по отношению друг к другу, в отличие от частей замковых нераспадающихся головоломок.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    TNG-RIGI Tanglement of Rigid & Semi Rigid Parts Wire PUZZLES, Cast "ABC", Chinese Rings
    TNG-R&F Tanglement of Rigid & Flexible Parts Hess Wire puzzles, Dalgety's "Devil's Halo"
    TNG-FLEX All Flexible Parts Leather tanglement puzzles
    TNG-RING Puzzle Finger Rings Puzzle Rings, Puzzle Bracelets

    OPENING PUZZLES (OPN) are puzzles in which the principle object is to open it, close it, undo it, remove something from it, or otherwise get it to work. They usually comprise a single object or associated parts such as a box with its lid, a padlock and its hasp, or a nut & bolt. The mechanism of the puzzle is not usually apparent, nor do they involve general assembly or disassembly of parts that interlock in 3D.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    OPN-BOX Opening Containers Boxes, Purses
    OPN-LOCK Opening Locks Padlocks
    OPN-HIDD Opening/finding Hidden Compartments not originally designed as puzzles Chippendale Tea-Chests, Poison Rings.
    OPN-OTH Opening other objects Nut & Bolt, Knives, Pens, Cutlery, Oskar's Keys, Oskar's "Dovetail", "Hazelgrove Box"

    INTERLOCKING PUZZLES (INT) interlock in three dimensions, i.e. one or more pieces hold the rest together, or the pieces are mutually self-sustaining. Many clip-together puzzles are "non-interlocking"

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    INT-BOX Boxes that disassemble Strijbos Aluminium Burr Box
    INT-CART Cartesian (Internal Parts along 3 mutually perpendicular axes) Burrs, Cutler's Burr in a glass, most plastic keychains, JWIP, "Nine of Swords"
    INT-POLY Interlocking Polyhedral & other non-cartesian geometric shapes Coffin's "Saturn", Squashed burrs
    INT-OTH Other Interlocking Shapes "Tak-it-Apart", "Plato's Plight"

    JIGSAW PUZZLES (JIG) are made as if cut or stamped into pieces from a single complete object, and the principle objective is to restore them to their unique original form.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    JIG-STD Standard Jigsaws Can include double sided puzzles, & jigsaws with holes & gaps
    JIG-IDEN Jigsaws with identical pieces "Shmuzzles", Ceramic hexagons, Picture Cubes & Blocks
    JIG-SLOP Jigsaws with non perpendicular/sloping cuts "Broken Heart", Japanese "Sabre Tooth Tiger"
    JIG-LAYR Multiple layer Jigsaws Transparent Escher jigsaw
    JIG-OTH Other jigsaws Stave variable picture, "Toyznet", Bilhourd's incomplete surfaces

    ASSEMBLY PUZZLES (NON‑INTERLOCKING) (ASS) require the arrangement of separate pieces to make specific shapes without regard to the sequence of that placing, they may clip together but do not interlock in 3D. Some have a container and are posed as packing problems.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    ASS-CART Assembly of Cartesian Parts Pentominoes, Checkerboards, Polycubes, Soma, "Hoffman" cube, "Managon", "Even Steven", Squashed Soma, Laker Cube
    ASS-STRA Straight Edge/Face Non-cartesian Tangram, T-puzzle, Triangular & Hexagonal polyominoes, 9-piece ivory cube
    ASS-POLY Assembly Polyhedra & Spheres Ball Pyramids
    ASS-OTH Assembly of other shapes Pack the Plums, Apple & Worms, "Phoney Baloney", Gears

    PATTERN PUZZLES (PAT) require the placing or arrangement of separate pieces of a similar nature to complete surface patterns according to defined rules. The pattern required may be the matching of edges of squares, faces of cubes, etc. The pattern may be colour, texture, shape, etc. Where the pattern is due to differences in shape they must be sufficiently minor not to obscure the similarity of the pieces

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    PAT-EDGE Matching Edges &/or Corners patterns Heads & Tails, "Dodeca", Macmahon squares
    PAT-STIX Patterns of sticks Match Puzzles, Jensen's "Tricky Laberint"
    PAT-NUMB Arrangements of Number Patterns Magic Squares, Number Puzzles
    PAT-SIMI Pattern arrangements of similar, points, pegs, or pieces according to predetermined rules Queens on Chess Board, Josephus, Waddington's "Black Box", "Instant Insanity", "Dodeca", Macmahon cubes, Bognar's "Planets"
    PAT-DISS Arrangement of dissimilar pieces to make pattern according to predetermined rules "Testa", Skor Mor's "Instant Indecision", Chinese Balls in Ball, Waddington's "Kolor Kraze"
    PAT-STAK Stacking, Overlapping & Weaving Patterns Stacking Transparent Layers, "Lapin", Loyd's Donkeys, Weaving puzzles
    PAT-OTH Other Pattern puzzles Oskar's "Solar System"

    FOLDING & HINGED PUZZLES (FOL) have parts that are joined together and usually do not come apart. They are solved by hinging, flexing, or folding

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    FOL-SPRI Folding Springy wire and strips "Why Knots", Mobius Strips
    FOL-HGOP Folding Hinged parts in Open chain Rubik's "Snake", Strung Cubes, Clinch Cube
    FOL-HGCL Hinged Parts in Closed chain Flexagons, Rubik's "Magic", "Flexicube"
    FOL-SHEE Folding sheets & strips Map Folding, "Jail Nixon", strip polyhedra

    SEQUENTIAL MOVEMENT PUZZLES (SEQ) are those that can be solved only by moves which can be seen to be dependant on previously made moves.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    SEQ-PLAC Sequential Placement "Psychic Puzzle", "Fit Puzzle"
    SEQ-RIVR Sequential River Crossing "Wolf,Sheep & Cabbage"
    SEQ-HOPP Sequential Hopping & Jumping. Solitaire, Tower of Hanoi, Counter & Peg moving puzzles
    SEQ-SIMP Sequential Simple Sliding & Shunting (No group moves needed) 15s puzzle, Tit-Bit's "Teasers", "Inversions"
    SEQ-GRP Sliding & Shunting with Mechanical or Rotating parts (some Group moves NEEDED) "Tower of Babel", "Missing Link", "Backspin", "Turntable Train", Tomy's "Great Gears", Raba's "Rotascope", "Rubik's" Cube, "Orbit"
    SEQ-ROLL Sequential Rolling Rolling 8 Cubes
    SEQ-OTH Sequential Miscellaneous Mechanical "The Brain", "Hexadecimal", "Spin Out"

    JUGS & VESSELS (JUG) have a mechanical puzzle or trick in their construction that affects the filling, pouring or drinking therefrom.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    JUG-STD Puzzle Vessels standard (built-in tubes to suck) -
    JUG-CPLX Complex Vessels requiring special manipulation Gemma Patent 2006, Combination JUG-STD/JUG-BASE
    JUG-BASE Vessels that pour from Base "Jolly Jugs", Thrift Cups
    JUG-NLID Lidless Vessels (fill from base) Cadogan Teapots, Chinese winepots
    JUG-OTH Other vessels Royale's "Self-Pouring" Patent, Spoutless winepots (hydraulic seal)

    OTHER TYPES OF MECHANICAL PUZZLES & OBJECTS. (OTH) This group is for puzzle objects that do not easily fall into the above categories and cannot be categorised into sufficiently large groups to warrant their own major class. Included in this group are Balancing, Measuring, Cutting, Math, Logic, Trick, Mystery, & Theoretical puzzles . Also provision is made for puzzles pending classification.

     
    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    OTH-ELEC Electrical & Electronic (non-dexterity) -
    OTH-BAL Balancing (non-dexterity) "Columbus Egg"
    OTH-MEAS Measuring & Weighing Puzzles Jugs & Liquids, 12 Golf Balls, Archimedes Gold
    OTH-CUT Cutting Puzzles Cork for 3 Holes, Five Squares Puzzle
    OTH-WORD Puzzles applied to objects, the puzzle more usually found printed on paper Rebus, Anagrams, Riddles, Crosswords, Etc. (on Plates, Jugs, Loo Paper, etc.)
    OTH-RIDD Riddles Riddles (on Plates, Jugs, Loo Paper, etc.)
    OTH-GAME Puzzle related games and toys. Pocketeer Bean Bop, Parker's "Orion" "Mind Maze" & "Situation 4", Rubik's Challenge
    OTH-MATH Mathematical Puzzles (excluding number pattern arrangements) -
    OTH-LOGI Logic Puzzles Cartoon pictures to arrange in order
    OTH-TRIK Trick or Catch Puzzles (solution needs subterfuge) "Infernal Bottle", Some magic tricks
    OTH-MAGI Magic & Conjuring Puzzles Self-working magic tricks
    OTH-MYST Objects whose function or material is a mystery Wotsits, Creteco spacers
    OTH-VIRT Puzzles whose existence is only theoretically possible. Such as 4d puzzles, or those which can ONLY be represented on a computer
    OTH-SET Sets of Puzzles of Mixed Type Compendiums of mixed type puzzles
    OTH-PEND PENDING CLASSIFICATION !! Puzzles awaiting classification

    AMBIGUOUS PICTURES & PUZZLING OBJECTS (AMB) in which something appears impossible or ambiguous.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    AMB-POBJ Paradoxical Objects (Objects that apparently cannot be made) Arrow through bottle, Impossible Dovetails, Oskar's "Escher Puzzle", Penrose triangles.
    AMB-VANI Vanishing Images "Vanishing Leprechauns", Hoopers paradox
    AMB-DIST Distortions Anamorphic pictures
    AMB-ARCH Archimboldesque Objects Pictures and objects of one subject made up from unrelated images or objects.
    AMB-HIDD Hidden Image Pictures (no manipulation required) Devinettes (obscure outlines), "Spot the Difference", Random Dot Stereograms
    AMB-HMAN Hidden Image Pictures (Manipulation Required) "Naughty Butterflys", "Find the 5th Pig", Needing coloured overlays, Soot on unglazed part of ashtray
    AMB-TURN Pictures that require turning to show different images. Landscape turned to make a portrait, Topsey Turveys, OHOs, Courtship/Matrimony, Monk/donkey vesta
    AMB-ILLU Perception Illusions Optical Illusions, Weight Illusions
         

    NON-PUZZLE but related EPHEMERA (EPH) has been included as most puzzle collections include related ephemera which, whilst not strictly puzzles, need to be classified as part of the collection.

    CODE CLASS EXAMPLES
    EPH-SHAD Shadow effects Hold to light cards producing movements by shadows, Shadowgraphs, Wiggle-Woggle Hold--to-Light cards
    EPH-HTL Images revealed by Holding to Light Protean Views, Hold to Light advertisements
    EPH-MICR Images & words concealed by extreme smallness Micro printing
    EPH-MOIR Effects produced by moire patterns -
    EPH-HOLO Holograms Holograms of Puzzles solving themselves
    EPH-ANAG Anaglyphs Requiring red & green glasses for either 3D or movement effects
    EPH-STRP Strip Pictures (Different views from different angles) Framed strip prints showing 3 different views
    EPH-OTH Other puzzle related ephemera Non-rebus heiroglyphics
         
         

    The Puzzle Classification was completed in 1999 and in the past 7 years it has only been found necessary to add Sub-Class - OTH-GAME for Games that are related to Puzzles.

    In 2010 the sub-class -REL was added to ALL main classes to cover the many objects that are found in Puzzle Collections which are related to, but not in themselves, puzzles.

    New Subclasses are still under consideration :
    a) for puzzles that look like, for example, TNG but are actually an OPN.
    Currently OTH-TRIK is for puzzles that require subterfuge in the form of an additional component; or, in other words, for puzzles that are not fully self-contained.

    b) for "How does it work" puzzles which cannot be included in AMB-POBJ

    Considering for dropping: -
    AMB-TURN as they can be included in AMB-HIDD

     

Pieter van Delft, Jack Botermans 1978

    Источник - Creative Puzzles of the World
  • Geometrical Problems
    1. Moving-Piece Puzzles (he means Tangram-like, not Sliding Piece)
    2. Dissection Puzzles
    3. Polyforms
  • Matchstick Puzzles
  • Domino Puzzles
  • Construction Puzzles and Packing Problems
  • Ring-String-Ball Puzzles
  • String Puzzles - he means magic tricks and string figures
  • Mazes and Labyrinths
  • Wire Puzzles
  • Number and Logic Puzzles
  • Positioning Puzzles
    1. Fore and Aft
    2. Crossing the Water Puzzles
    3. Peg Solitaire
    4. Tower of Brahma (Hanoi)
    5. Railroad Shunting Problems
    6. Puzzles with Checkers
    7. Sliding Block - Flying, Ma's, George Washington
  • Magic Squares - lo shu

Wikipedia

    Источник - Wikipedia
  • Assembly puzzles
  • Disassembly puzzles
  • Interlocking puzzles
  • Disentanglement puzzles
  • Fold puzzles
  • Lock puzzle
  • Trick vessels
  • Impossible objects
  • Dexterity puzzles
  • Sequential movement puzzle
  • Simulated mechanical puzzles

Rob's Puzzle Page